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Remove the orchid from the pot and place it in a wide basin. To make it easier for you to pull out the orchids, remember slightly the walls of the pot. If this does not help, carefully so as not to damage the aerial roots of the phalaenopsis, cut or smash the old pot.
Usually, the more developed the Root in phalaenopsis, the more firmly it "holds" to the pot, and the more difficult it is to release it. However, if the orchid is weakened or sick, it has few living roots, then it easily comes out of the pot, it is enough to slightly pull it by the stem.
It is necessary to rinse and clean the roots from the residues of the substrate. It happens that they are strongly intertwined with each other and it is very difficult to free them from the substrate. To easily clean the roots, pour a little warm water into the basin and immerse them in the water for 10-20 minutes to soak. Do not leave all the orchids in the water along with the leaves, only the root system.
Then use your fingers to untangle it. Help yourself with a shower, direct the stream of water to the remnants of the bark to rinse them off. If some roots are firmly rooted in the bark, do not try to free them, so as not to injure.
Examine the root carefully for rot. All rotten and dry roots must be removed. If only part of the root is damaged, cut only this part to healthy (green or white) tissue.
Before the "circumcision" procedure, the scissors must be disinfected with alcohol or held over a fire so as not to introduce any infection through the open sections.
After all operations, be sure to treat the wounds of the phalaenopsis.
You can: sprinkle with activated charcoal (crush tablets) or cinnamon, grease with garlic solution, cover with sulfur, treat with antiseptics, brilliant green.
Remove old yellow leaves if present. They must be removed carefully so as not to damage other leaves, according to the following scheme: cut the leaf along the middle and remove it from the stem by pulling the cut ends in different directions.
It often happens that new roots grow a floor of old lower leaves. If you want to deepen them into the substrate, then the lower leaves can be removed, even if they are NOT yellowed yet, because they will interfere with landing. Remove in the same way as for yellow leaves.
You should also remove drying or yellowed peduncles, leaving a small stump (0.7-1 cm).
All cuts, wounds on the leaves also need to be disinfected.
After you have treated all the wounds, you need to let them heal and dry. You can leave the orchids for about 2 hours and then continue with the transplant. Or you can transplant in 2 stages: in the evening, let's say, do the first 4 steps, leave the orchids to dry overnight, and finish in the morning. At night, the slices will have time to tighten better.
Only if you are going to leave the orchids overnight, make sure that there is NO excess water left in the axils of the leaves and core of the phalaenopsis, otherwise decay may begin. Blot water with paper towels.
The next step is to plant the phalaenopsis. The ideal substrate for it is large pieces of bark. They are planted in bark (usually pine); to increase moisture, moss (sphagnum) can be added to it. However, charcoal, cut wine corks or styrofoam can also be used with the bark. In such a substrate with coarse fractions, voids necessary for aeration of the roots are formed. It is not necessary to fill them with a smaller substrate, so it will be possible to breathe in the roots.
When choosing a pot, focus on the size of the root system. The pot should be of such a diameter that when the root system is lowered into it, 1-2 cm of free space would remain on the sides.
If Phalaenopsis is your first orchid, then be sure to take a transparent pot - this will make it easier for you to care for it. You will see the condition of the roots and will be able to accurately determine when to water the houseplant.
Lay a layer of coarse bark at the bottom of the pot. Then add a layer of smaller pieces and place the same plant in the pot. Holding the plant by hand, add the bark in small portions.
It is necessary to fill all the space between the roots with the substrate. To do this, gently tap the walls of the pot with your hand, and push individual pieces of bark between the roots with your hand or a wooden stick.
When planting, the phalaenopsis must be placed in the center of the pot. If its stems are even, and slightly slant to the side, then it is not necessary to plant it in the center. And do not try to straighten the stem by tying it up or supporting it with something, it will still fall on its side over time.
DO NOT deepen the base of the stem! Soot so that the upper roots are slightly covered with the substrate.
Aerial roots, if they are small, can also be deepened into the substrate. But if they are long and there is a risk of breaking them at the same time, it is better to leave them as they are.
The transplanted orchid for the first time, until it takes root, put in a shady cool place. Do not water it for about a week. At this time, you can spray the leaves, but only in clear and warm weather. If phalaenopsis is actively growing, it is recommended to add a weakly diluted fertilizer to the spraying water.
At the first watering, it is advisable to add phytosporin or fungicide to the water.