Advice 2023

Table of contents:



Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Be a Great Restaurant Host or Hostess - Service Industry Tips 2023, February


To prevent dumplings or dumplings from sticking together, add a little vegetable oil to the water and stir them occasionally with a slotted spoon

To make the meat juicy, it is salted only at the end of cooking. When cooking, the meat is placed in cold water if you want to get a good broth, and in boiling water if you need juicy boiled meat

When frying, food is placed in a preheated pan with hot oil, otherwise it will stick. You can not add cold oil during the frying process - it will smoke

The slower the soup is cooked and the smaller its volume, the tastier it will be. It is better to cook the soup in a saucepan with thick walls

The porridge is boiled in a closed saucepan without opening the lid or stirring. Basically, the porridge is cooked with steam

All legumes must be soaked before cooking, otherwise they will cook for a very long time. Salt them only at the end of cooking

If you make a batter with distilled water, it will be smooth and firm. And the batter prepared in mineral water is loose and airy

Meat is usually breaded in vegetable oil, loaf in milk, and black bread in butter. Meat cutlets and fish are best breaded in flour

To make the yeast dough come up faster, stick a few shake tubes into it. It will not stick to your hands if you grease them with vegetable oil

Slightly burnt pastries can be saved by cooling them down and then gently scrubbing the burnt area with a fine grater

Only warm milk can be added to mashed potatoes; cold milk gives it an unpleasant grayish tint

Peeled potatoes will cook faster and become crumbly if held under running very cold water

Poultry will cook faster if you rub it inside and out with lemon before boiling. The same result will be obtained if, before cooking, it is kept for 2-3 hours in a mixture consisting of equal parts of water and vinegar

To make meat soup faster, cut the meat across the grain into large noodles or use it to make meatballs

To make the steamed food cook faster, add salt to the water in which the pan is located: this will raise its boiling point

If you want to quickly chill a dessert or food, place them in containers of cold salted water

Raw peeled potatoes, cut into small pieces, will cook much faster when fried in a pan under the lid than open

To cook vegetables faster, you need to put 1 teaspoon of vegetable oil in the water

To boil the beets faster, wash them, peel them off, cut them into cubes, put them in a saucepan and cover them with hot water so that they only cover the vegetable. Cook under the lid, stirring occasionally and adding water a little. By the time it is ready, the water should have almost completely boiled away. Then add 1 teaspoon of red beetroot vinegar to a saucepan and stir. To the top

Weighing without scales

In a thin glass:

  • 250 g of water, milk, sour cream,
  • 200 g of granulated sugar, potato starch, semolina, buckwheat,
  • 160 g wheat flour, rice. beans, peas. millet, pearl barley
  • 230 g of rolled oats,
  • 245 g ghee
  • 210 g butter
  • 240 g vegetable oil
  • 325 g of honey
  • 330 g of jam.

In a tablespoon:

  • 20 g of water, honey, milk, ghee, vegetable oil
  • 25 g sour cream, butter, granulated sugar, flour, soda
  • 30 g salt, potato starch
  • 15 g vinegar, margarine.

In a teaspoon:

  • 7-8 g of cereals
  • 5g water, milk, vinegar, ghee, vegetable oil, margarine
  • 10 g flour, sugar, salt, butter, sour cream.

A medium-sized tomato, apple, potato, cucumber weigh about the same - about 100 g. Carrots, onions - 75 g. Cabbage head - 1500 g. Cauliflower - 750 g. An egg without shell weighs 43 g, a piece of sugar - 9. To the top


To make the painted floors shine, they can be washed with water and ammonia (1-2 tablespoons per bucket of water).Do not add soap or soda - they will dull the paint

For carpets to serve for a long time, you need to properly care for them. It is best to vacuum the carpet 1-2 times a week. If you do not have a vacuum cleaner, get a separate, not too hard broom for the carpet

Soot got on the carpet. Sprinkle salt over the stain, and after an hour, the soot can be easily brushed off

Dust and dirt from lacquered and polished furniture surfaces should never be removed with a wet cloth or hot water. The furniture should be wiped with a soft, dry and clean flannel, cloth or a special “Comfort” napkin

To make scratches on furniture less noticeable, take a small brush, dampen it in a mild iodine solution, and wipe away the scratches

Hot objects may have white spots on polished tables. They can be removed as follows. The stain is rubbed with a piece of paraffin wax, covered with paper and pressed down with a hot iron. If the stain does not come off the first time, this technique is repeated. Then they thoroughly wipe the table with a soft cloth, and the polish will be restored

To keep the fur from moths, soak a cotton swab in kerosene and put it in a fur hat or fur collar

It is not necessary to wash a bath or a sink after cold water immediately hot or vice versa. From the unequal expansion of the material from which these objects are made, and the enamel, cracks form on the enamel coating, then they turn black

Several tiles bounced off the bathroom wall. Clean them from the cement, grease them with oil white or any oil paint and press firmly: the tile will hold very firmly

If a gap has formed on the ceiling or walls, take liquid joiner's glue, add tooth powder or finely grated chalk to it. Seal the cracks with this putty. After a day, the putty will harden

When making repairs, keep in mind that the room looks higher if the wallpaper is glued without a gap to the ceiling itself

Bloated wallpaper can be removed by ironing it with a slightly heated iron after drying

To clean painted floors in warm water, add 1-2 tablespoons of ammonia to a bucket of water. Ammonia gives the paint a shine. Do not wash the floor with soap and baking soda - they will tarnish the oil paint

Linoleum floors are washed with warm water, without adding soda - it loses shine, discoloration. It is useful to rub linoleum from time to time. For this, special pastes "Turpentine", "Samoblesk", "Emulsion" are suitable

To wash the mirror, you can prepare the composition: 1 glass of water, 1 tablespoon of vinegar, 20 g of chalk (tooth powder), mix everything and boil. Let it stand. Pour the clean liquid into a bottle, and, if necessary, wipe the mirror with it

The glasses will shine if you add kerosene to the water (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water)

To avoid fogging the windows in winter, you need to wipe the glass with a rag moistened with a solution of 1 part of purified glycerin and 20 parts of alcohol

Glass should be washed or wiped at least once a month. Glasses wiped with a mixture of 3 parts of water, 7 parts of glycerin and a few drops of ammonia are less dirty

To make the window sparkle, wash it with water and starch. A frozen window can be cleaned with sodium chloride solution. Frosted glasses are washed with hot water with the addition of vinegar

Defrost the refrigerator every 3 weeks. To do this, take out all the food, then unplug the refrigerator from the power supply, leave the doors open. Ice and snow should melt on their own, do not speed up this process with a knife. Wash the refrigerator with a solution of baking soda (1 tablespoon of soda for 1 liter of water), wipe it with a soft cloth, and when it dries, plug it back in and put the food in it

To prevent unpleasant odors in the refrigerator, its inner part should be washed at least twice a month with warm water with the addition of baking soda (a tablespoon per 1 liter of water), and then wiped and ventilated for half an hour

Rust can be removed with hydrogen peroxide mixed with 10% ammonia. It is good to peel copper products with raw potatoes

If a new broom is dipped in hot salted water or soaked in salt water for 2-3 hours, it will last longer

The broom is disheveled. Hold it over a saucepan of boiling water for a few minutes - it will look like new

To avoid unpleasant odors in cupboards, add natural ground coffee. You can get rid of the specific smell of the bread bin by washing it with a vinegar solution. To prevent an unpleasant odor in the refrigerator, wash it with a solution of vinegar or baking soda, wipe it and ventilate it

To remove carbon deposits from the burners, ignite them over high heat. Don't forget to open the window

To help wash off the tea towels, soak them in warm water before washing with a little vinegar. To the top

Washing and cleaning dishes

Knives, meat grinders and other metal objects, after being used for cooking fish dishes, are first washed with cold water and salt, then rinsed with hot water

The dishes containing raw eggs, dough, jam, fish are first washed with cold water, and only then with hot water

Aluminum cookware will look shiny if you add a few drops of ammonia to the water during washing

Porcelain dishes should not be washed with very hot water, so as not to spoil the drawing

To prevent the dishes from smelling like fish, wipe them with dry mustard before washing

Polished surfaces are washed with a soft cloth or sponge in warm water and soap

You cannot keep knives on a hot stove or other hot objects, they become dull from this

To get rid of the fish smell, rub it with potatoes or carrots. You can also use a rag dampened with vinegar or vegetable oil. It also helps with the onion smell

To remove stains from porcelain dishes, rinse them with warm water and a little ammonia

Stubborn stains from knives and forks are removed with lemon juice

To remove burnt milk stains, pour water into a saucepan, add 2-3 tablespoons of baking soda and boil for a few minutes. Then wash

To clean the enamel water tank of sediment, pour salt water into it with vinegar and let sit for several hours

To remove the darkening of an enamel container, fill it with hot water and baking soda (a teaspoon per glass). Let sit for a few hours, then rub with salt and rinse

You can keep the shine of polished dishes for a long time if you periodically clean them with special pastes or tooth powder

The stains on the hands from vegetables are removed first with a pumice stone, and then with lemon juice

After being in the oven, brown spots may appear on the dishes; to eliminate them, the dishes are cleaned several times with table salt in between cleanings, it is necessary to rinse

Vessels with a narrow neck are well washed with crushed eggshells

Darkening from metal pans is removed by boiling acid fruit (apples, pears) in them

It is not necessary to buy special products to descale the kettle. Boil water with the addition of citric acid in a kettle, let it stand for 10-15 minutes, and then drain the water and simply rinse the kettle. Boil water in a kettle with the addition of 1-2 tbsp. tablespoons of vinegar, then just rinse the kettle. To the top

Gutter cleaning

Use mechanical cleaning methods to remove blockages in drain pipes. Your best helpers are a rubber plunger, ruff, or wire. There are also special tools for cleaning pipes, which are available in the form of a liquid, powder or granules. Pour or pour a little product into the drain of a sewer pipe (tub, sink or toilet) and leave it on for a while. Then rinse thoroughly with running water

Pour 1 cup salt and 1 cup baking soda into the water drain, then add boiling water. If the problem is only in the residual fat, then, as a rule, it usually dissolves immediately. But for a more effective result, do not use a drain for several hours

Dissolve 2 tbsp. l. baking soda ash in 1 glass of hot water and slowly pour into a water pipe. After 10 minutes, rinse with plenty of hot water. To the top

Removing stains

It is best to remove oil paint stains with a mixture of gasoline, acetone and turpentine in equal parts

Fresh ink stains on clothing are quickly removed with milk

Jacket collars, sleeves, collars near raincoats are well cleaned with ammonia

Wipe stains from dampness on the fabric with a cloth dipped in yogurt serum

Black velvet is cleaned first with a brush slightly moistened with kerosene, and then with a dry, clean brush. Let the dress air so that the kerosene smell disappears, and flatten it by holding it over the steam

To clean suede shoes, wipe them with a cloth moistened with water and ammonia, and then walk over them with a rubber aunt or very thin sandpaper

Rusty stains on the white cloth are removed with another hydrogen sulfite solution (1 part to 10 parts water)

Hydrosulfite cannot be used for dyed items, as it discolors fabrics

For colored fabrics, a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and grated soap is used. A little water is added to this mixture to obtain a homogeneous mass and the stain is covered with it for a day, then washed off with water

A simple remedy for removing grass stains is a solution of table salt (a teaspoon of salt in 0.5 cups of water)

On clothes, linen and fabrics there may be grease, ink stains, from food products, resin, oil paint, soot, tar, cologne, etc. These stains cannot always be removed during normal washing, therefore, they are cleaned with special compounds before washing

How to remove stains on carpets? From coffee, cocoa, tea - cold water with glycerin (1 tablespoon of glycerin per 1 liter of water). Stains from beer, wine, liquor are removed with warm water with Bio S washing powder. Soak a swab with this solution and scrub the stain, then rinse with warm water and vinegar (1 teaspoon to 0.5 liters of water)

If the shoe polish is dry, add a few drops of milk to soften it. In this case, the cream gives a good shine, it is better absorbed into the leather of shoes

The zipper lock in shoes will last longer if you grease it with vegetable oil or greasy hand cream

New shoes sometimes have a burning sensation, especially in warm weather. In this case, it is recommended to wipe the inside of the shoes with water mixed with vinegar. To the top


When washing your winter woolen garments, add a teaspoon of glycerin to the last rinse water. Woolen items will become softer

If you machine wash colored laundry, add 2-3 tablespoons of regular salt to the water. Things will not fade, colors will become brighter

Clothes made from synthetic fabrics require constant and proper care. It should be washed and cleaned more often than products made from natural fibers. If the dress has been worn 5-6 times, it must be washed. This is due to the fact that the easy electrolyzability of the fabric leads to an intense attraction of dust particles, and the ability of synthetic fibers to absorb the fatty secretions of the skin leads to rapid contamination of the inner surface of the clothing

When washing woolen knitwear, put a tablespoon of baking soda in the water: it will refresh the color, products, and eliminate the smell of sweat. Then rinse the items thoroughly

White socks, knee-highs are perfectly washed off if they are pre-soaked for 1-2 hours in water, to which 1-2 tablespoons of boric acid are added

To keep your terry towels and bathrobes fluffy, soak them in salted water after washing and do not iron them

When washing tulle curtains, you can add a little milk to the blue solution, this will make the curtains look like new

To bleach linen during boiling, you need to pour 1 tablespoon of ammonia per 10 liters of water

  • It is most convenient to wash small things on the road, in a hotel in a plastic bag, kneading it in your hands. This allows soaking, saves detergents and significantly reduces the risk of damaging, for example, stockings or tights.
  • An unpleasant job - washing handkerchiefs. Try this method: throw a handful of table salt into a bowl of warm water, soak the handkerchiefs for two hours, then rinse.

Do not dampen woolen, silk or man-made fabrics when ironing. Iron them from the wrong side through a cotton cloth with a moderately heated iron (temperature not higher than 150 C)

To help new jeans retain their vibrant color, soak them for 12 hours in a strong sodium chloride solution before washing them for the first time. If you wash your jeans in the washing machine, turn them inside out so they will last longer

To restore the original color to white socks, soak them for a couple of hours in a solution of boric acid (1-2 tablespoons of boric acid in 10 liters of water)

If you need to machine wash your down jacket, put some tennis balls in the drum when washing. This is necessary so that the fluff does not fall off during rinsing and push-ups - the balls will help to evenly distribute it over the product. Down jackets are washed at a temperature of 40 ° C

To prevent black items from fading, add a pinch of table salt to the water during the last rinse. The same technique works when rinsing things made of bright or dark chiffon and silk - you need to add 25 g of salt per 1 liter of water when rinsing

The yellow and blue color of silk perfectly refreshes the decoction of orange peels (dry or fresh). And the blue and bright red color of the fabrics will help keep the rinse in water with the addition of baking soda

Also, salt water will help when washing colored linen (so that it does not fade) and tulle curtains that have darkened from time to time. Only in this case, you should not rinse, but soak in warm salted water

Flannel items cannot be washed with soap, simply rubbing them with a bar of soap. To wash such clothes, you need a soap solution with the addition of glycerin (for 10 liters of water - 1 tablespoon of glycerin)

In order for suede gloves to retain their "marketable" appearance, they must be washed in warm soapy water, putting them on your hands. After thoroughly rinsing the gloves, they should be blotted with a terry towel and greased with glycerin. Dry your suede gloves in a cool and dark place. When the gloves are dry, put them back on and clean them with a soft brush

If from frequent washing the buttons on clothes have lost their former shine, cover them with colorless nail polish - they will shine like new again

It is better not to hang knitted clothes for drying, but to lay them out so that they do not stretch or deform. If there is nowhere to lay out the knitted jacket, but you need to dry it, pass the towel through the sleeves of the jacket and attach it with clothespins at the collar and cuffs

If you add a pinch of salt to the starch, the starched laundry will shine better. But it is not recommended to starch underwear, handkerchiefs, face towels

it is best to dry clothes in the fresh air: it dries well, without "iron" folds; ironing such linen is pleasant and quick. It is better to take off linen slightly damp

It is better not to wring out the washed men's shirts, but to dry on a hanger; iron them in this order: back, collar, yoke, sleeves, shelves

Jeans should be washed, turned inside out and zipped, at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C. You do not need to twist them

Sweaters with a slightly matted coat can be restored to their original appearance by washing them in water, in which the beans have been soaked for several hours

To keep bathrobes and towels fluffy, soak them in salted water after washing and do not iron them

When washing men's shirts where collars and cuffs are most dirty, add a little hydrogen peroxide to the detergent powder. Washing temperature should be high - 85-90 ° С

Nylon stockings and tights will last longer if you boil them before wearing them

Colored products fade less if table salt is added to the washing solution. The water temperature should not be higher than 60 ° C

Before washing, it is recommended to sew a skirt with a large number of folds along the folds with large free stitches with a thin thread - then it will be easier to iron

Fresh ink stains on clothes are quickly removed with milk

When washing curtains, it is recommended to add a little milk to the blue solution - the curtains will become like new. To the top


Iron woolen and semi-woolen items dry, but through a damp cloth at a temperature not higher. 180 ° C. In this case, you should not iron the same place until the fabric through which you are ironing is completely dry

Linen and cotton are difficult to iron. It is advisable not to overdry them. The linen is usually ironed slightly damp on the front side. If it is dry, it is better to sprinkle it with hot water before ironing. Only places with embroidery, so as not to deprive it of its relief, are ironed from the inside out. You can iron cotton or linen clothes in the same way

Corduroy ironing from the inside out, without strong pressure, slightly moisturizing. It is advisable to put something soft at the same time. If corduroy things are ironed from the front side, it should be done carefully, with a warm iron, preferably by weight. After ironing, brush against the pile with a stiff brush so that it rises

Iron the knitted fabric through a damp cloth, without pressing, steaming slightly

It is better not to iron silk knitwear at all. It is enough to pull the product, while it is still wet, in the right directions to return it to the correct shape

Clothes made from bouclé and embossed knitwear should not be ironed. If the jersey is wrinkled, it is not ironed, but gently steamed by weight

The lace must be ironed wet, from the inside out, laying on a soft blanket. The embossed edge is best pinned to the blanket

For viscose, only dry ironing is possible, otherwise stains will appear on the product

Natural and artificial silk fabrics must be ironed from the inside out and not with a very hot iron

Artificial silk should not be sprayed with water - stains will remain

It is not recommended to iron velvet, suede and plush

Before ironing, run the iron over a clean, dry cloth to make sure the soleplate is clean and not overheated

Large items, such as sheets, must be folded in half in width, right side up. After ironing one side, turn the sheet over and iron the other side

On small things, first smooth the edges, and only then the middle

Things with fringes (tablecloths, towels) must be shaken before ironing so that the fringe straightens out. To the top

Removal of marks and other ironing defects

The gloss that has appeared on the suit from frequent ironing can be removed under a stream of steam (from the spout of a boiling kettle) or wipe the greasy areas with a cotton swab dipped in tea leaves

The tan marks from linen items will disappear if the items are soaked in water in half with sour milk overnight

To remove burn marks, cotton items should be soaked in cold water for an hour, and then wiped with a solution of 1 teaspoon of bleach in 1 glass of water and rinsed thoroughly

If there is a tan from the iron on the silk fabric, you need to quickly prepare a gruel from soda and water and wipe the stain with it. When dry, the baking soda should be brushed off and the item rinsed in cold water

Onions will help remove a tan stain from any other fabric: wipe the stain with a half of an onion and rinse it with soap and water or detergent

Lightly moisten heavily scorched areas with hydrogen peroxide and put the item in the sun, and after a few minutes rinse in cold water

The tan marks can be removed by moistening them with lemon juice and sprinkling with powdered sugar on top. After a while, the powder must be washed off with cold water

Moisten the burn marks with cold water, sprinkle with salt and expose to the sun. After a while, shake off the salt, and rinse the cloth in water

For those who do not like ironing the arrows on their trousers. Rub the arrows of the trousers (from the inside, of course) with a thin piece of dry soap. Then, as usual, steam the pants through cheesecloth. And no matter how you or your significant other wrinkles the trousers, the arrows will be perfect! To the top

Operation and storage of clothes

If the leather gloves are tight, wrap them in a wet cloth a few times. Hours, then put it on your hands and dry like this

Leather gloves sometimes fade from the inside out and get your hands dirty. Rub talcum powder on the seamy side to keep your hands clean

To protect the white fur from yellowing, it should be stored in a blue bag or case in summer

Do not hang woolen clothing you have just taken off in your closet. It must first be ventilated and cleaned of dust

Do not dry wet woolen clothing near heating. The fabric loses its natural properties from heat

Do not hang clothes on the back of a chair, this will cause them to lose their shape. Coming from the street, immediately hang your coat or dress on a hanger that should match the shape and size of the garment. Short shoulders will stretch the sleeves, long ones will make dents on them

To prevent a dress with a large neckline from slipping off the shoulders, cover them with fabric

How to make your shoes waterproof. For this, a special mass is prepared. It is done like this: melt 1 pound of soap over a fire and half a pound of resin (1 pound = 0.40951241 kg). This not completely cooled mass is taken on a brush and smeared with it on shoes. To give the shoes a gloss, they are brushed and rubbed evenly with wax and turpentine dyed with soot. From this treatment, the skin becomes very durable

Preservation of rubberized things. Rubber coat, air cushions, can not be stored in dry and warm place. In warm weather, the rubber coat should be hung in a cool, well-ventilated area, as should an air cushion that should be slightly inflated. If you want to restore softness and elasticity to a rubber coat and other rubber products, immerse them for 5-30 minutes in a weak solution of ammonia. To the top

Darning and knitting secrets

When repairing leather products, it will be easier if you pierce the material with a needle from an old syringe, fixing a regular needle and thread in its hole, which will help it to accurately hit the right place during the return stroke

Excellent mittens for children are obtained from an old hat with earflaps. Ears are cut off from it, a hole is made in them, a finger is sewn on - and wear it to your health

Metal buttons come off rather quickly due to the fact that the thread is frayed by the edges of the holes. If, before you start sewing on a button, twist its edges with the same thread, turn to turn in one layer, it will hold much longer

The oldest way to thread a woolen thread into the eye of a needle is to run the end of the thread with your finger over the surface of the bar of soap

A felted knitted product is easier to dissolve if you hold it for a day in the following solution - add 3 tablespoons of ammonia to 10 liters of soapy water and one tablespoon of turpentine and wine alcohol each, then rinse in warm water with the addition of vinegar (1 tablespoon of water spoon) and dry

When loosening a worn dressing item, wind the threads in soft and light balls

To straighten used yarn, wrap it around the backs of two chairs set up against each other, tie it in several places with thread, wash in warm soapy water, rinse well and wring out in a terry towel. Tie wet skeins to a rope and hang a load from each bottom. Change the position of the skeins from time to time. To the top

Windows and doors

How to avoid fogging windows

To avoid this, you need to wipe the glass with a rag moistened with a solution of 1 part of purified glycerin and 20 parts of ordinary (can be denatured) alcohol. This method is one of the most effective. Approximately every two weeks, the glass is thoroughly wiped with a dry cloth and greased with a new portion of glycerin.

How to remove ice from glass

In a warm solution of table salt or alum (a handful of salt per 1/2 liter of water) moisten a sponge or a soft brush and run it over the frozen glass, which makes the ice melt quickly. When the ice crust disappears, you need to wipe the glass dry. Even better: rub the glass with a solution of calcium chloride - the ice melts almost instantly.

How to insulate a door

1. Take old newspapers.

2. Roll each newspaper into a tube, a little wider than the distance between the balcony doors.

3. Place the rolls vertically between the doors close to each other, close the doors.

And if you are not going to use the door in winter, plug all the holes with cotton, and seal all the joints between the door and the jamb on top with narrow strips of fabric (you can tear an old white sheet) dipped in a strong soapy solution. Where the gaps are wide, it can be glued in several layers.

Advantages: white rags on white jambs are almost invisible; the soap solution does not let drafts through, in the spring everything is removed without a trace with one movement of the hand, it is stretched, smoothed and cleaned until the next fall.

There is such a sealant - tubular polyurethane foam (it seems) - such a long white sausage rope of various diameters (from 8 to 25 mm) in cross-section, inserted into the openings between the frame and the window sashes (when closed) and fills in all the holes. Ten minutes to the window, it doesn't blow, it looks very decent outwardly and you don't have to tear it off in the spring - you just take it out and put it away until next winter.

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