The work on planning the internal space of a built-in closet is often compared to ordering a kitchen set. Yes, the measurer will help you with the engineering solution and suggest design options. But he will not be able to decide for you whether it is more convenient for you to have two hangers and shelves, or to prefer them one bar and basket.
In order for the built-in wardrobe to cause you not sighs, but delights, you need to think carefully about the internal layout: distribute departments and sections, plan shelves and hangers, drawers and organizers. At the same time we will find out how many swords, trousers and boots we have.
What size can a wardrobe be made?
Of course, when calculating, you will proceed, first of all, from the size of that room or part of the space (say, a corridor or hallway), which you decided to allocate for a built-in wardrobe. However, there are several significant aspects to consider.
The standard depth of a wardrobe with hinged doors is 60 cm. So much is needed for the hangers with clothes on a regular longitudinal bar to fit freely: for a convenient positioning of outerwear, at least 55 cm is required, light - 5 cm less. If it is a wardrobe with sliding doors, it is better to add another 10 cm - so much will be "eaten" by the "compartment" structure.
The minimum width of the closet is not regulated, but it makes no sense to make it less than 40 cm - otherwise the boxes with shoes will not fit. In a cabinet less than 50 cm deep, you will have to replace the longitudinal bar with end ones. Calculate their number correctly: on average, 8 hangers are placed on a 40-centimeter end bar.
Theoretically, the height of the built-in cabinet can be anything. But there are nuances. If you order the most popular wardrobe with a chipboard frame, you will be limited to a maximum plate height of 278 cm. For typical apartments, this is usually enough. If you need a taller cabinet, a mezzanine is simply built over it. The main section of the cabinet and the mezzanine are separated by a horizontal partition-ceiling, which serves as a connecting element.
The maximum height of sliding doors is 4 m: this is the length of the profiles in popular designs. But if you want chipboard doors higher than 278 cm, you will have to use decorative partitions. Or choose another, more expensive material.
The length of the cabinet can be anything you like. If he has a floor or ceiling planned, then you need to take into account the limited length (height) of the slab - the same 278 cm for chipboard. This obstacle is easily overcome: the master puts up a vertical wall and attaches the next slab to it - and so on ad infinitum. In addition, most often the closet can do with the floor and ceiling of the apartment: in this case, its own structural elements are not used.
The maximum length of a guide for compartment doors is 4-5 m. It is not recommended to join them, since the rollers wear out the most at the joints. The alternative is the same column-wall, in fact, splitting your closet in two. It will still look like a monolithic - what's the difference?
In the case of sliding doors, there are restrictions on the minimum length of the cabinet - 1 m. Doors (and there should be at least two of them) do not let out less than 50 cm wide, otherwise they will fall out of the guides.
And if, on the contrary, you want a wider door? However, experts do not advise making sliding doors wider than 120 cm - otherwise they will begin to destroy the roller system. The optimal width is considered to be 60-80 cm.
The most harmonious proportions of door height and width are 1: 5. Facades of this size are the most convenient to use and do not warp.
Another important rule: the width of the door should be matched to the width of the section. No matter how wide you open the doors, "dead zones" are still formed in the cabinet, which are never open. If a drawer falls on such a zone, it simply will not slide out.The exception is a four-door wardrobe: in it, you can plan the doors so that two sections open at once in the center.
Swing doors are usually 60 cm wide. A wider door will be too heavy and the hinges may not support it.
How to plan the interior of your closet?
Designers recommend before planning the closet to make a list of all the things that you will store in it, and then add another 20% "for the growth of the wardrobe."
Decide what will lie on the shelf or in baskets (knitwear) and what will hang (trousers, jackets). And how many things do you have in each of the categories.
Decide on the price: the interior of the cabinet can be very varied in cost. Therefore, limit the budget that you plan to meet in advance. An amount that does not exceed 10% of the value of the cabinet itself is considered rational. But, ultimately, it's up to you to decide.
Longitudinal and end rods
Clothes hanging from a hanger will take up the largest compartments. For women's clothing, we plan a box with a height of 150-160 cm.If long men's coats or raincoats will hang in the closet, lay a height of 175 cm.
Estimate at least approximately the number of items of clothing that will hang from the hangers. For each hanger, you can lay 5 cm - this will be the width of the compartment (and the length of the longitudinal bar).
If you have a narrow cabinet with end rails, place a 60 cm wide compartment on each hanger. End hangers are usually made a little - 2-3 pieces.
Sometimes it is worth making separate boxes with a barbell for short items: skirts, trousers, shirts and blouses. They require a lower height - 80-100 cm, which means they save space.
If men's trousers are hung without kink, set aside 120 cm in height for them.
If you require a length of the longitudinal bar more than 120 cm, provide a vertical support bar in the middle. It is placed between the upper and lower partition and is connected to the horizontal bar with a special coupling. This is necessary so that the longitudinal bar does not bend under the weight of things. If heavy things are hanging on the hangers - fur coats, coats - the length of the bar without support should not exceed 100 cm.
Another important nuance: if the wardrobe is not built into a niche, but has side walls, do not plan a compartment with a bar immediately behind the outer wall. Make the usual horizontal shelves there better. Sliding doors, rolling back and forth, push the side wall, creating an impact load. Horizontal shelves located close to the side plate will connect it to the rest of the cabinet's supporting structures. One barbell will not provide such a strong bond.
Bar with lift
An elevator is a special device that allows you to lower and raise the bar (as in the photo). Such designs are quite expensive, but indispensable in tall cabinets when you have to use space under the ceiling. The lift will lower the jackets and skirts right into your hands, and then again remove the bar with things to an unattainable height.
Built-in wardrobes are ordered not only for clothing. On open shelves, you can store almost everything (except what you need to hang): bed linen and knitwear, books and dishes. For clothes, you can use long shelves (80-120 cm), and for heavy books and crockery, the shelf length should not exceed 80 cm.The convenient distance between the shelves is at least 40 cm.
If you are making a shelf longer than 80 cm, provide a vertical partition under it as additional support. Otherwise, the shelf may bend during use.
A variety of knitwear is mainly stored on the shelves - it can stretch on hangers. In addition, the shelves are suitable for storing neatly folded jeans, bags, boxes, hats. So make more shelves - everyone will come in handy.
In the upper part of the cabinet, wide shelves are designed - for blankets, rugs and bed linen. In addition, it would be nice to provide compartments for sports equipment. Think about what exactly you will store there.Four pairs of rollerblades? Tennis rocket? Yoga mat? It is better to measure especially oversized fixtures in advance. At this moment, you understand the advantage of a chess player over a bodybuilder.
In addition, at the very top, they usually make a large long shelf for suitcases, bags and travel equipment. Height - 45-50 cm.
How do you keep the shelves in order?
Clothes can slide off shallow shelves, and on long ones they quickly turn into a shapeless heap. To prevent this from happening, make small shelves with a side or break a long rack into separate square cells: this way each stack of clothes will have its own cell. It will become much easier to maintain order.
Another way to organize the contents of open shelves is to put everything in boxes.
Roll-out shelves are more convenient than fixed ones - they make it easy to find and get what you need. And the distance between them can be less than between the usual ones. True, convenience is not cheap. Roll-out shelves make sense only in a space-saving mode.
Drawers are also much more convenient than stationary counterparts - they allow you to easily view the contents. And besides, they save cabinet space: the height of a standard drawer is 20-25 cm, shelves are 35-40 cm. Drawers better protect the contents from dust. They have one drawback - they are expensive, so it makes sense to use them locally: for all sorts of small things that are inconvenient or impractical to store on shelves: hats, gloves, scarves and other accessories. For stockings, socks and underwear, shallow drawers are used - about 12 cm high.
The most convenient drawer models are with a transparent front wall. They allow you to see the contents of the drawer without pulling it out.
When designing a drawer and calculating its width, be sure to take into account the width of the hinges at the swing doors and the door joints in the wardrobes. If the drawer is made to the full width to the maximum, it may simply not slide out.
Drawer handles in a cramped wardrobe are a frivolous waste of space. Even the most modest hinge will eat 1-2 cm of the closet, which you took with such difficulty from the room. Therefore, it is better to choose boxes with recesses in the front panel.
Dividers and organizers in drawers help prevent chaos. They can be built into the drawer, or they can be sold separately from it. If you hate the piled up underwear, it is better to spend money on this additional option and enjoy arranging the socks in the cells. Like solitaire.
Wardrobe in closet
Especially valuable and delicate things are kept behind additional doors. This design allows you to additionally protect the contents from dust and other adverse factors. Doors, as a rule, are made of glass, but deaf doors can also be made - this is even more economical.
How to store shoes?
Sloped shoe racks are a very convenient way to store shoes and boots. Alas, these shelves are not very spacious. It is more rational to divide the shoes into two parts: the one that is being worn now, and the one that needs to be stored - seasonal, elegant, for special occasions. Leave what you need on the shelves, and put the rest in boxes and put them in the far corners of the cabinet.
Shoe shelves are usually designed at the bottom of the closet. Their standard length is 80-100 cm.
If shoes and bags play an important role in your life, you can give each item a separate place in the closet. Of course, in a living room or dining room, such an exhibition would be inappropriate, but in a dressing room or hallway - quite.
How to store ties?
Hanging organizers are handy, but they take up a lot of space. An ergonomic but expensive option is vertical pull-out cabinets.
The most economical way is with rods or hooks on the cabinet door.
Fans of order can put ties in a closet drawer. Nice, economical and convenient to choose.But are you really sure that you will roll them into a roll and put them in place every time?
How to store jewelry?
Special equipment exists in jewelry storage cabinets. If your closet is also a dressing table, think about how much and what kind of jewelry you will keep here. Caskets with tangled chains are a thing of the past - now the jewelry can be conveniently hung separately to make it easy to choose the one you want. Small pull-out trays with organizers will help you arrange rings, earrings and bracelets - conveniently and beautifully, just like in a shop window.
If there is no room for a dressing table in the closet, use the open end. Here you can hang beads and chains, hair accessories on hooks or even furniture handles. It is not necessary to close this wealth with a door.
Built-in ironing board
A rare but very pertinent design in a wardrobe. It will save you from folding and unfolding the ironing board and worrying about where to attach it.
The most popular way to place a mirror in a wardrobe is to make the doors mirrored. You can cover the cabinet with mirrors in whole or in part. This is ergonomic: the mirror does not take up extra space, and the reflective surfaces add shine, light and volume to the interior.
If you are not a fan of large mirrored surfaces in the interior (indeed, they do not add coziness), make the inner surfaces of the doors mirrored. True, this method is only suitable for swing structures. Two open doors with mirrors inside will provide the effect of a dressing table: you can see yourself both from the front and from the back.
The original solution is a pull-out mirror. It allows you to see yourself in a different light than what is on the door. Such a mirror is convenient when the closet is in a narrow aisle, and there is simply no place to look at yourself in the door.
Another plus of the retractable mirror is that you don't have to constantly wipe off fingerprints (especially small ones) on it.
This element of the built-in wardrobe is useful if you have an uneven floor - which means there may be problems with doors mounted to the very bottom. Coupe doors will run downhill, and a guide cannot be installed on the bumps. Swing doors can also be skewed, in addition, ugly gaps will remain between the door and the floor. The plinth allows you to level the bottom level of the cabinet, eliminating these problems.
Additionally, lighting the wardrobe is effective, practical, but not at all necessary. With the help of lighting, you can make open shelves more interesting, more mysterious - the space behind glass doors. After all, it's easier to find what you need on lighted shelves.
It makes sense to mount lighting inside sections if you have open shelves and want a beautiful decorative effect. Lighting hidden inside one shelf will not reach the other compartment. If you want to illuminate the contents of the cabinet so as not to rummage through things in the dark, mount the lamps in the visor. Do not forget to leave a gap between the visor and the upper border of the swing doors so that they do not cling. A transformer for recessed luminaires is usually installed on the roof of a cabinet.
How to properly equip the mezzanine?
The mezzanine is a separate space at the top of the cabinet. It is not so easy to get there, so basically the mezzanine works as a pantry: seasonal clothes and sports equipment, suitcases and dresses that “I will put on when I lose weight” are removed here. Inside the mezzanine, as a rule, additional compartments and drawers are not made. If the height of the cabinet allows, you should not make separate doors for the mezzanine - this will only increase the cost of the cabinet. A separate compartment door will be especially expensive, therefore, if you really have to, it is better to make swing or hinged doors there.
Solid or fractional facade?
It is not necessary to hide the contents of the sections behind large monolithic doors. It is possible for each section and block to make its own separate doors.In this case, the drawers will become part of the façade. You will get quick access to things, and the front will look more interesting - if, of course, you have aesthetically planned the structure. Shelves and drawers hidden behind large doors can be positioned purely for logic, not aesthetics. And besides, solid facades will be cheaper.
Cabinet with a secret
A whole secretary can be arranged behind the doors of the built-in wardrobe. Boxes for papers and letters, shelves for collections of coins and cigars, pull-out table for a laptop. It is difficult to find this in standard configurations, but to order it is easy.
If desired, the built-in wardrobe can have a built-in safe, or a refrigerator for cosmetics or watch holders with a recharging function.
How can you reduce the cost of a built-in wardrobe?
Reducing the cost of the cabinet is, of course, a path of compromises, but not all of them will be painful for you.
So what can you give up? If you are planning a wardrobe, replace the expensive aluminum system with a cheap steel one. It is, of course, less reliable, but if you do not look far ahead, it will do. The service life of an aluminum system is 20 years, for a steel one - on average 5-7. Well, the steel one is noisier.
Another resource for saving is the number and design of doors. If you replace narrow doors with fewer wide ones, it will be cheaper. In some places, doors can be abandoned altogether - to make a combined facade with open shelves or to put swing doors instead of compartment doors.
You can reduce the cost of the cabinet due to the materials used. Instead of expensive chipboard that goes to the facade, use a thinner white slab inside. If you plan the shelves correctly, their load-bearing capacity will not deteriorate.
Fully extendable drawers are convenient but quite expensive. You can replace ball bearing guides with roller ones. Yes, the drawers will not slide so smoothly, and they cannot be pulled out completely, but this is not always important. Alternatively, ditch the drawers in favor of regular shelves.
You can even save on shelf fixings. Instead of invisible eccentrics that pull the shelves and sidewalls together, use regular corners. In fact, there are no inconveniences from them - on the contrary: if you want, you can rearrange the shelves differently.
The only case when eccentrics cannot be abandoned is when the shelves serve as stiffeners that hold the cabinet structure, for example, in the extreme section with the non-built-in sidewall open.